Today we are going with the onion cultivation guide. The onion is a liliaceae (Liliaceae), like the leek, garlic, chives, etc… They have the particularity that they can be grown in several stages throughout the year and can be stored for a long time. For this reason it is a crop that can not miss in our gardens.
Its exact origin is not known, but most botanists place the origin of the onion in the area of Iran, Pakistan, etc. It spread rapidly to other areas, where it was transplanted and cultivated in traditional orchards.
WHEN AND HOW TO SOW
For the cultivation of onions, we will have 2 options that are the most common. We can do the sowing in seedbed or buy the seedling with the onion already grown. The time will depend a little on the variety we have chosen. Since we have summer varieties and winter varieties.
The optimum temperature for onion cultivation is 15 ºC and above. Of course, it also depends on the variety that we are growing in our garden or potted garden. Most varieties normally require temperatures above 15 ºC at all stages of cultivation, but there are other varieties that require cold periods at the beginning. As we said, everything depends on the variety and the time of sowing.
As for the way of planting once the seedlings are grown, it is very simple. The first thing we have to do is to give them an optimal soil for their growth. The onion loves light, permeable, spongy, deep soils, as it is a bulb. This can be done by providing a good amount of organic matter in the area where we are going to put the onions, in this case the LOMBRIZ HUMUS is very useful.
Once the onion bed is ready, it is time to transplant. For this we leave a planting frame of about 20 cm between plants and about 40-50 cm between rows. With this our onions will have enough space to grow without problems. It is very important at the time of transplanting to cut the top of the plants at least 50% of their height. This will help the plant suffer less moisture loss in the transplant and that everything works well.
IRRIGATION IN ONION GROWING GUIDE
Watering must be constant, but it does not need much water, this you have to engrave it to fire. Constant watering is often mentioned, but in this case, in the cultivation of onions, we insist more than ever. In fact, the onion does not tolerate excess moisture, so what should be done is less watering volume but more frequently. Overwatering causes cracking and rotting.
In the onion cultivation guide we are not going to talk about pruning, since it is a plant that we have to leave it as it grows. It is true that many people tie them or bend them or flatten them, almost at the end of their cycle. They say this is done to further thicken the bulb before harvest. Here we leave it a bit to your choice.
HOW AND WHEN TO HARVEST ONIONS
The onion harvest, in terms of time, depends a little on the variety we have chosen to use in our garden. The form is very simple, we simply have to stretch or help us with a pitchfork if we see that it is hard.
As for when to harvest, it’s up to the individual. We can harvest a little at a time as we consume. Or we can harvest all of them at once and keep them in the pantry, to be used at our convenience. As for the time of its conservation time. As before, it depends on the variety we have chosen. Some will last a short time and will be more for consumption on the spot or within a few days. And some last in the pantry for more than six months, as long as they are in optimal conditions.
MOST COMMON DISEASES AND PESTS IN ONION GROWING
Here, as always, we will tell you which are the most common pests and diseases in onion cultivation.
INSECTS IN ONION CULTIVATION
- Onion moth
- Onion fly
DISEASES IN ONION CULTIVATION
- Nematodes (e.g., Ditylenchus dipsaci)
- Root and collar rots (Pythium spp., Phytophthora, Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, Pyrenochaeta, etc.)
- White rot (Sclerotinia)
- Pink root (Pyrenochaeta terrestris)
- Downy mildew (Pyrenochaeta terrestris)
- Botrytis (Botrytis)
- Charcoal (Urocystis cepulae)
- Itchy (Stemphylium vesicarium)
- Purple blotch (Alternaria porri).